Session on Sustainable Fisheries and Ocean :
Opportunities and Challenges for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Marine and Fisheries in Indonesia

A session by Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries

Date : Friday, 11 November 2016
Time : 17.40 – 19.00 GMT
Venue : Indonesia Pavilion at COP 22, Marrakech, Morocco

 

The Indonesian region, also known as the “Maritime Continent”, has a complex system of islands, narrow peninsula and complicated coastal geometries. Indonesia is also known as a large biodiversity region and has a high potential for fish resources. As an archipelagic country, Indonesia flanked by two oceans (Pacific ocean and Indian ocean) and two continents (Australia and Asia). Indonesia has 17.409 islands, including 10.000 small islands with 95.181 km coastline. Coastal area are inhabitat by140 millions people (out of 250 millionspopulation), in 297 districts/cities (out of 440 Indonesian districts/cities).

The climate changes may have a significant effect on ocean and coastal ecosystems. The main issues of climate change in Indonesia are: sea level and sea surface temperature rise (coastal vulnerability, coastal ecosystem degradation, sinking islands and cities and coral bleaching), community livelihood (loss of home for 42 millions of coastal communities in 2050, loss of income resources, uncertainty in fishing activities due to seasonal changes and emerging diseases), and fisheries and aquaculture (changes of fish migration pattern, increase numbers of stranded fish and increase of fish diseases).

Temperature 1.50C has been acknowledged as the highest rise tolerable to avoid irreversible acidification and to protect vulnerable ecosystems such as coral reefs and vulnerable people such as those living on islands. Achieving target of 1.50C needs to enhance capacity of coastal ecosystem resilience and help communities get climate ready and safe. In the meantime, two other potential Indonesian CO2 emission reduction components ‘mangroves and sea grasses ‘ are also available to meet the targeted objectives. These ecosystems are important for the mitigation of climate change because of their roles as natural sinks for atmospheric CO2 and may be responsible for the significant role of the ocean’s annual net CO2 uptake.

As most affected and vanguard of climate change impacts, archipelagic and small island developing states, Indonesia needs to enhance their adaptive capacities, strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring adequate adaptation. These adaptation measures involve making adjustments in economic, social or ecological systems in response to actual or expected climatic changes and their effects or impacts. By exploring how the management of ecosystems and natural resources can produce both adaptation and mitigation benefits in the face of climate change may improve efficiencies and more sustainable development outcomes in local communities and nationally.

The vulnerability of Indonesia’s marine and fishery sectors to climate change needs to be addressed by enhancing adaptive capacity of vulnerable fisheries dependent communities and increase the resilience of the ecosystems on which these people depend. Knowledge and adoption of behaviors that support implementation of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) measures into community-led fisheries management will be crucial. In turn, the EbA measures will be able to restore and sustain Small Scale Fisheries (SSF), conserve critical ecosystems, and sustain the ecosystem services needed for resilience of coastal communities. Capacities of fishing communities to protect and manage ecosystems and their services through improved natural resource governance and alternative fishing practices determine the right choice of adaptive strategies due to greater intensification of fishing pressure. Communities that can understand and implement ecosystem-based adaptation approaches are better able to protect their assets from climate stressors and adapt to climate change.

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